Como la zonificacion moderna afecta e incentiva la expansion urbana

vía Urban kchoze: How modern zoning affects land value and incentivizes sprawl.

How modern zoning affects land value and incentivizes sprawl

As I already pointed out, in any economy (be it socialist, capitalist, feudal, etc…) that uses money, the price of goods sends signals to consumers and guide their consumption. In terms of development, the value that is most crucial is land value. If land is cheap, then it sends a signal that land is abundant and it can be wasted without fear of bankruptcy, which results in low-density developments. If land is expensive, then it signals developers to build higher densities because land that desirable is rare. Land prices are what motivates high density developments in a housing market with little regulation.
But that still leaves one big question: what determines the value of land?
The answer in the end is that the potential profit from developing the land determines its value.
So if housing is in short supply and so has high prices, then the potential profit from building new housing is likely to be quite high. If the market tolerates higher densities, likewise. So without urban regulations, desirable locations would support higher-density developments, which would increase land prices and so squeeze out low-density developments in that location for all but the super-rich.
OK, so that’s that, but what are the repercussions of this? How does this contribute to shaping cities?

How zoning and density limits make low-density more affordable and high-density more expensive

First, let’s use a thought experiment with approximate values. Let’s look only at housing, specifically five types of housing: high-rise apartments, low-rise apartments, townhouses, small detached houses and big detached houses…
The five housing types of the thought experiment
Now, all of these housing types generate income, profit for the developer who builds and sells them. From the FAR (Floor Area Ratio), I will estimate some relative income per square meter of land used to build each housing type, knowing that bigger houses with bigger lots may tend to have more of a profit margin relative to building cost.
So if the large detached house has a relative profit level of 100 per square meter of land, the smaller detached house would have a profit level of 145, the townhouse would have an index of 190, the low-rise apartments, an index of 250 and the high-rise, an index of 840.
By that, I mean that a small detached house would yield 145% of the profit of the large detached house per square meter of the lot area, so 45% more.
Now let’s try a first scenario, where there is no zoning and no planning, let’s assume a uniform value of land everywhere (a simplification that may be valid for a small neighborhood), a value made by averaging all the indexes of each allowed building type. I supposed a construction cost of 1 500$ per square meter for all units, except high-rises that cost 2 500$ per square meter (divide by 10 for square foot, not exactly that, but close enough approximation), and I supposed that the unit size are 200 square meters for the big house, 160 for the small house, 120 for the townhouse, 90 for the low-rise apartments and 70 for the high-rise apartments.

Acerca de salvolomas

Asociación vecinal, cuyo objeto es preservar la colonia habitacional unifamiliar, sus calles arboladas con aceras caminables, con trafico calmado, seguras para bici, parques, areas verdes, centros de barrio de uso mixto accesibles a pie y oficinas solo en áreas designadas.
Esta entrada fue publicada en Densidad y Productividad, Desarrollo Urbano, Economia, Estacionamiento, Planeacion Urbana, Urbanismo, Uso de Suelo, Vivienda y etiquetada . Guarda el enlace permanente.


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